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2018—2020年无锡市农村居民生活习惯及环境卫生现况调查(PDF)

《现代预防医学》[ISSN:1003-8507/CN:51-1365/R]

期数:
2022年17期
页码:
3111-3116
栏目:
环境与职业卫生
出版日期:
2022-09-15

文章信息/Info

Title:
Investigation on living habits and environmental sanitation of rural residents in Wuxi, 2018—2020
作者:
黄春华1丁新良1朱晶颖1缪国忠2许华静3张琦4
1.无锡市疾病预防控制中心环境健康科,江苏 无锡 214023;
2.江阴市疾病预防控制中心环境卫生科;
3.宜兴市疾病预防控制中心环境卫生科;
4.无锡市疾病预防控制中心人事科教科
Author(s):
HUANG Chun-hua* DING Xin-liang ZHU Jing-ying MIAO Guo-zhong XU Hua-jing ZHANG Qi
*Environmental Health Division, Wuxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214023, China
关键词:
农村 环境卫生 厕所 污水
Keywords:
Rural residents Environmental sanitation Toilet Sewage
分类号:
R127
DOI:
10.20043/j.cnki.MPM.202201441
文献标识码:
A
摘要:
目的 通过对无锡市农村居民生活习惯及环境卫生情况的调查,了解无锡市农村居民生活习惯及环境卫生情况及动态变化,为制定政策措施提供依据。方法 按照简单随机抽样的方法每年选取10个乡镇200户家庭和每户1名家庭成员进行入户观察和问卷调查。结果 2018—2020年600户调查家庭以集中式供水为主(98.8%,593/600),卫生厕所普及率达99.7%(598/600),以完整下水道水冲式厕所为主(50.7%,304/600),粪便处理方式以进入排水系统为主(74.8%,449/600),生活污水排放方式以管道为主(84.0%,504/600),三者呈逐年增加趋势(P<0.05)。农药废弃包装瓶(袋)的处置方法以丢弃在田边或垃圾堆为主(68.9%,248/360),76.5%(459/600)调查户周围存在病媒生物孳生地。2018—2020年调查对象饭前便后都洗手的比率分别为88.0%(176/200)、91.0%(182/200)和94.0%(188/200),呈逐年上升趋势(P<0.05),文化程度、家庭年收入与洗手习惯均成正相关(r=0.133,P=0.001; r=0.128,P=0.002)。结论 无锡市农村地区环境卫生状况总体良好,但农村生活污水、农药废弃物和病媒生物的管理需进一步加强。
Abstract:
Objective To understand the living habits and environmental sanitation of rural residents in Wuxi and their dynamic changes, so as to provide basis for formulating policies and measures through the investigation of living habits and environmental sanitation of rural residents in Wuxi. Methods According to the method of simple random sampling, 200 families and one family member in each family in 10 towns were selected for household observation and questionnaire survey every year. Results From 2018 to 2020, 600 families mainly used centralized water supply(98.8%, 593/600), the popularization rate of sanitary toilets reached 99.7%(598/600), complete sewer flush toilets(50.7%, 304/600), fecal treatment was dominated by entering the drainage system(74.8%, 449/600), and domestic sewage discharge was dominated by pipelines(84.0%, 504/600), which showed an increasing trend year by year(P<0.05). The disposal methods of pesticide waste packaging bottles(bags)were mainly discarded at the edge of the field or garbage dump(68.9%, 248/360), and 76.5%(459/600)of the surveyed households had breeding grounds for disease vectors. From 2018 to 2020, the rates of washing hands before and after meals were 88.0%(176/200), 91.0%(182/200)and 94.0%(188/200)respectively, showing an upward trend year by year(P<0.05). Education level and annual family income were positively correlated with washing habits(r=0.133, P=0.001; r=0.128, P=0.002).Conclusion The environmental sanitation in rural areas of Wuxi is generally good, but the management of rural domestic sewage, pesticide waste and vector organisms need to be further strengthened.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
作者简介:黄春华(1982—),女,本科,副主任医师,研究方向:环境卫生学
通讯作者:张琦,E-mail:zq-zfy@163.com
更新日期/Last Update: 2022-09-15